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San Mateo County enters COVID-19 'purple tier,' nightly curfew

Record COVID-19 cases also prompt new health restrictions, mandatory travel directive in Santa Clara County

Indoor dining, such as at The Village Pub in Woodside, shown here in July 2020, will face restrictions under the state's "purple tier" COVID-19 designation for San Mateo County. Enforcement begins Nov. 30. Photo by Magali Gauthier.

Continued steeply climbing COVID-19 cases and hospitalizations have pushed San Mateo County into the state's most restrictive "purple tier," and a nighttime curfew and Santa Clara County's health officer has ordered additional restrictions on top of the already declared purple tier in that county, press statements announced on Saturday, Nov. 28.

San Mateo County had been in the less restrictive "red tier" since late September. A statement issued by the San Mateo County Emergency Operations Center announced the new designation and a nighttime curfew, both to begin on Nov. 30.

All retail, including shopping malls, are restricted to 25% of capacity and indoor restaurant dining is prohibited. A full list of what's regulated can be found here.

The county is also under a curfew order that begins at 10 p.m. through 5 a.m. San Mateo County has seen an 85% spike in COVID-19 cases between October and November, according to county health data.

"This is not unexpected considering the virus is surging across the state," Supervisor David Canepa said in a separate statement. "That being said, we have doubled the rate we are testing and are now second in the state behind only San Francisco in the rate that we do test. We are well positioned to handle the surge considering the hospital capacity we have and resources needed to battle COVID. As the holidays approach, we must double down on the core behaviors of frequent hand washing, socially distancing, avoiding crowds and most importantly wearing our damn masks. It's on us to take the personal responsibility to protect our families, friends and neighbors from this very deadly disease."

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Santa Clara County, which was already in the "purple tier," was forced to take a more serious step, however. Record-shattering numbers of COVID-19 cases and hospitalizations in the county have prompted worried health leaders to issue new directives, the county health department announced on Saturday.

As of Nov. 28, the county had 760 new cases of COVID-19 and 239 COVID-related hospitalizations, 71 of which are in the intensive-care unit, county officials said in a press release. These numbers set new records for the highest single-day counts since the outset of the pandemic. To reduce the likelihood of a surge in hospitalizations that would exceed the capacity of hospitals within the county, Health Officer Dr. Sara Cody announced new mandatory directives that accompany her prior Risk Reduction Order.

The changes include a maximum 10% capacity indoors in many stores and facilities, prohibiting contact sports, and reducing the size of outdoor gatherings. The county is also issuing a mandatory directive on travel, which strongly discourages leisure and nonessential travel, and requires anyone entering the county to quarantine for 14 days after returning from travel of more than 150 miles. The new mandatory directives begin Monday, Nov. 30 at 12:01 a.m. and will remain in effect until at least Dec. 21 at 5 p.m. unless they are extended.

"I am gravely concerned by the continuing surge in COVID-19 cases and hospitalizations," Cody said in a public statement. "The number of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in our county has doubled in just the past couple of weeks, and we are at risk of exceeding our hospital capacity very soon if current trends continue. During this critical time of surging COVID-19 transmission in our community, I urge every resident to exercise caution and to the greatest extent possible, minimize contact with anyone outside of your immediate household."

The new orders include:

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Capacity limits for indoor facilities: Stores and other facilities open to the public will be limited to 10% capacity indoors. Grocery stores, drug stores, and pharmacies will be allowed to operate at 25% capacity indoors to ensure adequate access to food and medicine.

All facilities open to the public must establish a "metering system" to ensure the capacity limits, such as by posting an employee at the facility entrance to track the number of people entering and exiting.

Outdoor gatherings: Gatherings continue to be allowed only outdoors, with a maximum of 100 people. The state limits such gatherings, however, to First Amendment protected activities, such as religious services or protests.

Professional, collegiate, and youth sports: All recreational activities involving physical contact or close proximity to people outside one's household, including all contact sports, will be temporarily prohibited. People can continue to engage in outdoor athletics and recreation where social distancing can be maintained at all times.

Cardrooms: Cardrooms are temporarily closed.

Hotels and other lodging facilities: Hotels and other lodging facilities will be open only for essential travel and for use to aid isolation or quarantine.

Quarantine post-travel: Leisure and nonessential travel are strongly discouraged, and a new mandatory directive on travel will require people to quarantine for 14 days upon return to the county after travel of more than 150 miles. Healthcare workers traveling into the county to provide care or patients traveling into the county to obtain treatment are exempted from this requirement.

Find comprehensive coverage on the Midpeninsula's response to the new coronavirus by Palo Alto Online, the Mountain View Voice and the Almanac here.

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San Mateo County enters COVID-19 'purple tier,' nightly curfew

Record COVID-19 cases also prompt new health restrictions, mandatory travel directive in Santa Clara County

by / Almanac

Uploaded: Sat, Nov 28, 2020, 2:57 pm
Updated: Sat, Nov 28, 2020, 4:53 pm

Continued steeply climbing COVID-19 cases and hospitalizations have pushed San Mateo County into the state's most restrictive "purple tier," and a nighttime curfew and Santa Clara County's health officer has ordered additional restrictions on top of the already declared purple tier in that county, press statements announced on Saturday, Nov. 28.

San Mateo County had been in the less restrictive "red tier" since late September. A statement issued by the San Mateo County Emergency Operations Center announced the new designation and a nighttime curfew, both to begin on Nov. 30.

All retail, including shopping malls, are restricted to 25% of capacity and indoor restaurant dining is prohibited. A full list of what's regulated can be found here.

The county is also under a curfew order that begins at 10 p.m. through 5 a.m. San Mateo County has seen an 85% spike in COVID-19 cases between October and November, according to county health data.

"This is not unexpected considering the virus is surging across the state," Supervisor David Canepa said in a separate statement. "That being said, we have doubled the rate we are testing and are now second in the state behind only San Francisco in the rate that we do test. We are well positioned to handle the surge considering the hospital capacity we have and resources needed to battle COVID. As the holidays approach, we must double down on the core behaviors of frequent hand washing, socially distancing, avoiding crowds and most importantly wearing our damn masks. It's on us to take the personal responsibility to protect our families, friends and neighbors from this very deadly disease."

Santa Clara County, which was already in the "purple tier," was forced to take a more serious step, however. Record-shattering numbers of COVID-19 cases and hospitalizations in the county have prompted worried health leaders to issue new directives, the county health department announced on Saturday.

As of Nov. 28, the county had 760 new cases of COVID-19 and 239 COVID-related hospitalizations, 71 of which are in the intensive-care unit, county officials said in a press release. These numbers set new records for the highest single-day counts since the outset of the pandemic. To reduce the likelihood of a surge in hospitalizations that would exceed the capacity of hospitals within the county, Health Officer Dr. Sara Cody announced new mandatory directives that accompany her prior Risk Reduction Order.

The changes include a maximum 10% capacity indoors in many stores and facilities, prohibiting contact sports, and reducing the size of outdoor gatherings. The county is also issuing a mandatory directive on travel, which strongly discourages leisure and nonessential travel, and requires anyone entering the county to quarantine for 14 days after returning from travel of more than 150 miles. The new mandatory directives begin Monday, Nov. 30 at 12:01 a.m. and will remain in effect until at least Dec. 21 at 5 p.m. unless they are extended.

"I am gravely concerned by the continuing surge in COVID-19 cases and hospitalizations," Cody said in a public statement. "The number of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in our county has doubled in just the past couple of weeks, and we are at risk of exceeding our hospital capacity very soon if current trends continue. During this critical time of surging COVID-19 transmission in our community, I urge every resident to exercise caution and to the greatest extent possible, minimize contact with anyone outside of your immediate household."

The new orders include:

Capacity limits for indoor facilities: Stores and other facilities open to the public will be limited to 10% capacity indoors. Grocery stores, drug stores, and pharmacies will be allowed to operate at 25% capacity indoors to ensure adequate access to food and medicine.

All facilities open to the public must establish a "metering system" to ensure the capacity limits, such as by posting an employee at the facility entrance to track the number of people entering and exiting.

Outdoor gatherings: Gatherings continue to be allowed only outdoors, with a maximum of 100 people. The state limits such gatherings, however, to First Amendment protected activities, such as religious services or protests.

Professional, collegiate, and youth sports: All recreational activities involving physical contact or close proximity to people outside one's household, including all contact sports, will be temporarily prohibited. People can continue to engage in outdoor athletics and recreation where social distancing can be maintained at all times.

Cardrooms: Cardrooms are temporarily closed.

Hotels and other lodging facilities: Hotels and other lodging facilities will be open only for essential travel and for use to aid isolation or quarantine.

Quarantine post-travel: Leisure and nonessential travel are strongly discouraged, and a new mandatory directive on travel will require people to quarantine for 14 days upon return to the county after travel of more than 150 miles. Healthcare workers traveling into the county to provide care or patients traveling into the county to obtain treatment are exempted from this requirement.

Find comprehensive coverage on the Midpeninsula's response to the new coronavirus by Palo Alto Online, the Mountain View Voice and the Almanac here.

Comments

Enough
Registered user
Menlo Park: other
on Nov 29, 2020 at 10:56 pm
Enough, Menlo Park: other
Registered user
on Nov 29, 2020 at 10:56 pm
32 people like this

Here are a new set of restrictions that people won't follow and with good reason. Newsom does not follow his own restrictions, why should others follow them? I have talked to several people and they have no intention of following the curfew. Essential worker are exempt, but they have also declared Tesla employees as "essential workers". Since when is making cars "essential". The same goes for self quarantining if you travel 150 miles away. This seems like a purely arbitrary number. I know several people going to Tahoe and other places more than 150 miles away and who have no intention of self quarantining when they return, frankly neither would I. If they take precautions when they travel why should spending a weekend in Tahoe be any different than spending a weekend in Monterey (less than 150 miles away)? I wear a mask whenever I am out, social distance and use common sense and most people I know do the same. That should be enough. Essentially restricting people's movement is going too far, in fact it seems that many law enforcement agencies had publicly said they have no intention of enforcing a curfew.


Menlo Voter.
Registered user
Menlo Park: other
on Nov 30, 2020 at 7:53 am
Menlo Voter., Menlo Park: other
Registered user
on Nov 30, 2020 at 7:53 am
17 people like this

Enough:

everything about the restrictions is arbitrary and the only ones that make any sense are wearing a mask and social distancing. It's ok to have people from three households together, but not four. Why? If everyone is following proper protocols it doesn't matter.

The bottom line is that people are not following masking and social distancing protocols. You can thank our POTUS and our Governor for that. POTUS politicized it and Newsom ignored it.


Enough
Registered user
Menlo Park: other
on Nov 30, 2020 at 9:24 am
Enough, Menlo Park: other
Registered user
on Nov 30, 2020 at 9:24 am
19 people like this

Menlo Voter,

I agree with you. Unfortunately adding more arbitrary restrictions is not the answer. These are just more restrictions that people will ignore. Personally I have no intention of quarantining if I travel 151 miles away and come back, nor do I plan to stay in my home between 10:00 PM and 5:00 AM. I am happy to follow the mask and distancing protocols but everything else makes no sense. Unfortunately I believe the more restrictions that they put in place the more people will get fed up and start ignoring even the ones that make sense (Masks and social distancing).


parent
Registered user
Menlo Park: The Willows
on Nov 30, 2020 at 11:28 am
parent, Menlo Park: The Willows
Registered user
on Nov 30, 2020 at 11:28 am
21 people like this

I agree that blanket rules are imperfect, as are our elected leaders (the rejection of science at the federal level is atrocious; Newsom's dinner is a disappointment that will feed into noncompliance). But just as our government officials are imperfect, so are all of us. The fact that individuals are imperfect doesn't give us reason to throw the rules out the window. It means quite the opposite -- we have to acknowledge the fallibility of ourselves and others, and create rules that account for our fallibility. If we could simply tell people to social distance and wear masks, and that would work, great. But it turns out it doesn't work; at least not enough.

I know quite a few people who profess the same thinking as these other commenters -- that individuals should be told simply to comply with distance and masks. It is these people who in practice don't actually comply with the rules. When they're in settings with friends or family, they sit too close, take off masks, etc. (And of course the people who reject masks and distancing in the first place are even less compliant.)

Sure, not everyone will quarantine after traveling 150 miles; but I hope that many will. And yes, not everyone will comply with the social gathering limits, but again I hope that most will. When people gather, they are tempted -- as flawed individuals, like the humans I know -- to violate the distancing guidance. If we were robots, distancing guidance would be enough. We are not, and we have to understand that about ourselves.

I want the schools to remain open for my elementary-school kids. I want to keep ordering take-out from my favorite restaurants. I want to stop by the toy store with a mask on to pick out a Christmas gift. I want all of these things for myself, my community, and the businesses in our area. In order to do all of this, we have to have rules, and substantially follow them, that are meant to account for our collective imperfections.


Enough
Registered user
Menlo Park: other
on Dec 1, 2020 at 9:08 am
Enough, Menlo Park: other
Registered user
on Dec 1, 2020 at 9:08 am
10 people like this

Parent,

So you are saying people are not following the current guidelines of wearing a mask and social distancing but adding more arbitrary restrictions makes sense?

I think instead of adding new restrictions that most people will ignore it makes more sense to push the existing guidelines harder. Up the enforcement of wearing masks and social distancing. Issue warnings and citations for people and businesses that do not follow the guidelines. Spend some money to push a bigger advertising campaign on the importance of masks and distancing.


Menlo Voter.
Registered user
Menlo Park: other
on Dec 1, 2020 at 7:32 pm
Menlo Voter., Menlo Park: other
Registered user
on Dec 1, 2020 at 7:32 pm
10 people like this

Enough:

I wasn't suggesting adding more restrictions. I agree with your last post. Don't add more restrictions, enforce the ones that are in place now. High fines and make them hurt so people aren't tempted to blow them off.


pogo
Registered user
Woodside: other
on Dec 2, 2020 at 6:40 am
pogo, Woodside: other
Registered user
on Dec 2, 2020 at 6:40 am
28 people like this

The public would be more understanding of these restrictions if those screaming "WEAR YOUR DAMN MASKS!" at us weren't so preachy, condescending and called everyone who raises the modest objections (such as asking if we should open the schools) stupid, uniformed and anti-science.

It would also be helpful if elected officials - Calif Gov Newsom, SF Mayor Breed, SJ Mayor Liccardo, Speaker Pelosi, LA Council Member Kuehl, Chicago Mayor Lightfoot, NYC Mayor DiBlasio, NY Gov Cuomo, NJ Gov Murphy, Denver Mayor Hancock, even the vaunted Anthony Fauci, et al - bothered to observe those same draconian restrictions they have so arbitrarily imposed on us.

And when caught, there's hardly a trace of embarrassment.

It would help if they could set an example. It's called leadership.


pogo
Registered user
Woodside: other
on Dec 2, 2020 at 6:46 am
pogo, Woodside: other
Registered user
on Dec 2, 2020 at 6:46 am
20 people like this

And the standard for opening a business should be if you are able to reopen SAFELY. Trying to figure out what is "essential" is a completely arbitrary exercise.

It's difficult for me to understand how it's permissible to buy toys at Target or liquor at Walmart but not to get your physical therapy treatments or be able to visit a bookstore. If wearing a mask and observing social distance allows you to go to Safeway or CVS safely, why is it not equally sufficient for shopping at far less crowded bookstores and coffee shops?


Enough
Registered user
Menlo Park: other
on Dec 4, 2020 at 11:08 am
Enough, Menlo Park: other
Registered user
on Dec 4, 2020 at 11:08 am
5 people like this

Pogo,

I don't see people asking others to wear masks as "preachy". They want to be safe and avoid something that could make them and their family very sick or possibly kill them. I find those that don't wear masks and uncaring and ignorant of their own wellbeing and that of others. I personally follow the rules that make sense and I think there is ample evidence that wearing a good mask and keeping at least 6 feet apart work to prevent spread. Staying at home might also work if they did not create arbitrary exceptions for people like Tesla employees. To me that makes the order political and not one meant to keep people safe. I feel the same way about the 150 mile quarantine requirement. Why 150 miles and if a person is safe and wearing a mask and social distancing why does it even matter?

I do agree with you about the elected officials. Telling people what they MUST do to keep California safe then goi8ng out and doing just the opposite is pure hypocrisy and they should be punished even more severely than the average citizen. I am certainly not going to vote for Newsom again. He lacks morals and is a hypocrite, not what I want in a leader.


pogo
Registered user
Woodside: other
on Dec 4, 2020 at 2:18 pm
pogo, Woodside: other
Registered user
on Dec 4, 2020 at 2:18 pm
19 people like this

Enough -

I didn't say that simply "asking others to wear masks (was) 'preachy.'" What I said was: "those screaming "WEAR YOUR DAMN MASKS!" at us weren't so preachy, condescending and called everyone who raises the modest objections (such as asking if we should open the schools) stupid, uniformed and anti-science."

Yes, it is preachy and condescending to tell us to stay home when you're in Cabo San Lucas with your family after just having attended a wedding with more people than you allow for us (Austin Mayor Adler). And it's preachy and condescending to go to a beauty parlor at night when no one else is permitted to do so (Speaker Pelosi). Or going to a Thanksgiving dinner literally minutes after telling us we shouldn't (San Jose Mayor Liccardo). Or getting your haircut because you're special and "a public figure" (Chicago Mayor Lightfoot).

And they told us that if we thought about sending children back to school we were stupid and anti-science. Assuming you believe Anthony Fauci's recommendation, it turns out they were wrong about that too.

I can accept the recommendations a bit easier if they showed just a bit more humility like, "I know this will be difficult" - instead of do it or I'll send the police to arrest you as they dine at fancy restaurants or visit THEIR friends and families.

This hypocrisy and condescension has not gone unnoticed and I'm happy to see more of the media calling them out on this.

Web Link

I stand on my prior comments.


Peter Carpenter
Registered user
Menlo Park: Park Forest
on Dec 4, 2020 at 7:49 pm
Peter Carpenter, Menlo Park: Park Forest
Registered user
on Dec 4, 2020 at 7:49 pm
12 people like this

Here is an excerpt from Congresswoman Eshoo's Weekly Letter:

"Every week I say the following to you but it bears repeating: COVID-19 is an overwhelming challenge with many factors contributing to its severity, but the one thing we can control is how we behave. As we approach the December holidays, let’s continue our individual responsibilities for the common good by washing our hands frequently; physically distancing (at least six feet); wearing a mask every time we go out; and avoid gathering with anyone who does not reside with us.

I am humbled and deeply grateful for the trust you’ve placed in me to represent you.

Most gratefully,
Image
Anna G. Eshoo
Member of Congress"

We are very lucky to have her as our Representative!


Enough
Registered user
Menlo Park: other
on Dec 4, 2020 at 11:15 pm
Enough, Menlo Park: other
Registered user
on Dec 4, 2020 at 11:15 pm
8 people like this

Peter,

Read the post above yours. She preaches one thing and does another. I am am beginning to believe we can do better with most of our elected officials. I hope people remember how they behaved when it comes time to vote again.


pogo
Registered user
Woodside: other
on Dec 5, 2020 at 6:55 am
pogo, Woodside: other
Registered user
on Dec 5, 2020 at 6:55 am
20 people like this

Enough -

You asked Peter Carpenter to "Read the post above yours" presumably to prove your point that Representative Eshoo is one of those hypocritical politicians employing the "do as I say, not as I do" standard. You went even further: "She (Eshoo) preaches one thing and does another."

As the author of the post you referenced, I cannot imagine a more dishonest or disingenuous interpretation of my comment. Nowhere in my post did I ever mention Representative Eshoo. I specifically mentioned Austin Mayor Adler, Speaker Pelosi, San Jose Mayor Liccardo and Chicago Mayor Lightfoot. I could easily NOTE many other politicians - from both political parties - but I have no examples of similar behavior from Representative Eshoo. Perhaps you could point out where I said Eshoo "preaches one thing and does another"?

I did not.

Furthermore, I have always found Representative Eshoo to be honest and fair... and decidedly NOT hypocritical. No, I don't agree with Eshoo on every issue, but I have never doubted her honesty or integrity. I have supported her re-elections and have always voted for her. Fortunately, it would appear that others share that opinion because Eshoo has easily been elected to office since 1993.

Yes, we can do better with many of our elected officials. With regard to Representative Eshoo, that would be difficult.


Menlo Voter.
Registered user
Menlo Park: other
on Dec 5, 2020 at 8:56 am
Menlo Voter., Menlo Park: other
Registered user
on Dec 5, 2020 at 8:56 am
14 people like this

Enough:

Pogo beat me to it. He never mentions Eshoo in his post. Anywhere. Do you have some evidence or an incident to share? Or are you just flinging mud hoping some will stick. I too don't agree with everything Eshoo does or says, but I voted for her and probably will again and I'm an independent with no party affiliations.

If you cannot provide any evidence you owe Ms. Eshoo an apology.


Peter Carpenter
Registered user
Menlo Park: Park Forest
on Dec 8, 2020 at 8:26 am
Peter Carpenter, Menlo Park: Park Forest
Registered user
on Dec 8, 2020 at 8:26 am
7 people like this

letter from Oakland Doctor about Bay Area stay at home- well worth reading.



Hello friends... I'm saddened and disturbed by the lack of understanding around how important the stay at home order is. Today, in the Bay Area, doctors and nurses felt a sense of relief that the local counties stepped up to essentially ask people to stay home starting Sunday.. If you don't work in healthcare, you may not understand what is going on in our hospitals, but I think if you are a human being you should care. Our hospitals in the Bay Area are filling up to levels exceeding our normal winter census. This means that today we are stretched thin. Our doctors are caring for a significant number of patients per doctor and the hospitals start to backup if we don't have people leaving beds that the next admissions need. Our ICUs, including new ICUs we opened in March and July, are nearly full and we have to resort to overflow areas to care for the next group of people needing vents. The thing about Covid is- there is a lag. People who will need the hospital generally come to the hospital about 5-7 days after their symptoms begin as they worsen. About 1 in 5 will need to go to the ICU and be placed on a ventilator. People who stay in the ICU can stay up to months as they struggle to live. So day over day, the number of people in the hospital will continue to grow. Our projections for the coming weeks show numbers exceeding the number of beds we have in the hospital. It will disrupt our normal process and hospital flow, our ERs will be backed up because beds are not available. Our patients having surgery will be impacted and may be asked to delay procedures. Our doctors will take care of an unsustainable load of patients. Most importantly, there may not be enough nurses to care for all the patients who will overwhelm the hospital. We have backup plan after backup plan to put patients in areas that aren't usually for overnight stays. To double up patients in the rooms that aren't meant for two. To accommodate people with pop up areas, and reroute IT infrastructures so patients can get medications they need and orders written. This preparation has been months in process and we have plans to implement. But such large hospital censuses strain the system and impact how we deliver care. This has never happened before in the twenty years I've been in medicine. It feels scary. We will rise to the challenge. We will work hard. We will work long hours to take care of you and your loved ones. We will break a little. Maybe a lot. But the only thing that can actually curb the numbers of patients in the hospital is your behavior.

You HAVE to not get COVID. You have to stop your kids from spreading COVID. You have to prevent the spread to your grandparents and the kind cashiers at the grocery store and your neighbors. This is not a drill. Unlike in a natural disaster, we can't farm out patients to nearby hospitals in counties not impacted. All of our California hospitals will be impacted over the next weeks. Please support us. It would make me very happy if you share this post and help disseminate the voices of actual physicians and healthcare workers, whose words need to be amplified. We are your brothers, sisters, classmates, neighbors, friends, colleagues. We don't want to see you or your loved ones suffer. We hope we don't meet you next week, or on Christmas or New Years. Have a quiet holiday. Order a lot of takeout to support your restaurants. Pick up your gifts at local stores. Buy some gift certificates to put money in pockets of local businesses. But please be safe. Thank you thank you.“ Dr. Lindsay Mazotti, hospitalist


Peter Carpenter
Registered user
Menlo Park: Park Forest
on Dec 8, 2020 at 9:45 am
Peter Carpenter, Menlo Park: Park Forest
Registered user
on Dec 8, 2020 at 9:45 am
3 people like this

An excellent overview article:

Web Link


"Side effects in clinical trials so far have been minimal and short-lived. But that does not guarantee vaccines won’t have rare and serious side effects. Rare side effects are simply unlikely to show up in a trial involving 30,000 people, only half of whom got vaccine. It’s only when vaccines are given to millions of people that we’ll have a better sense of the possibility.

Likewise, it will take time to see how long vaccine protection lasts. Nearly a year into the Covid pandemic, we still don’t even know how long people who were infected are protected. It’s known that immunity to human coronaviruses, relatives of SARS-2, can be pretty short-lived; some people, at least, can be reinfected within a year. Is that true for Covid? So far reports of reinfection are still rare. Will reinfections carry the same risk of severe illness, or will our immune systems respond quicker and turn future infections into colds, not killers? Too soon to say.

Will all the vaccines have the same durability, or will protection triggered by some be more fleeting? We’ll see.

If vaccinated people need to have their immunity boosted down the road with another shot, will they be able to get the same product they got the first time, or would they get better protection by moving to a different type of vaccine? That will have to be studied.

The situation that is about to unfold is absolutely unprecedented. There has never been a time when multiple brand-new vaccines, made with different approaches, some never used before, have hit markets around the globe in a relatively short period of time."


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